— Biological Safety at USAMRIID —
Established in 1969, USAMRIID has decades of experience operating containment laboratories and has provided extensive training and consultation to other agencies setting up their own facilities. We consider safety—of our employees, our neighbors, and the surrounding community—our number one priority.
There are four levels of biological containment, ranging from Biosafety Level (BSL)-1, the lowest, to BSL-4, the highest. BSL-1 would be comparable to an open bench laboratory found in a school classroom—no special precautions would be needed. At BSL-2, USAMRIID employees wear laboratory coats and observe other basic precautions. For BSL-3 work, we require our personnel to change into scrub suits before entering the laboratory and take a complete shower before exiting. Other personal protective equipment may be required as well, depending on the tasks to be performed. BSL-4 is the highest level of containment, and employees wear positive-pressure suits commonly called "space suits" and breathe filtered air as they work.
Complete descriptions of the biosafety levels can be found in the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) handbook (5th Edition) at the following link:
In addition, a combination of rigorous training, meticulous procedures, tight security, carefully designed structures, and elaborate and redundant operating systems is in place to protect our laboratory workers. These measures also ensure the safety of those outside the suites. Investigators working in USAMRIID laboratories are highly trained to follow established safety procedures.
Heat, pressure, and chemical systems housed in the laboratory suites process and decontaminate all liquid and solid wastes completely, and air passes through high-efficiency particulate air filters, making all the liquid and air effluents safe before they leave the facility. Multiple redundancies in equipment and systems help to ensure that if an unexpected failure were to occur, a backup would be in place to maintain safety.
Investigators in the laboratories study tiny amounts of infectious agents and the diseases they cause in order to develop vaccines, treatments and diagnostic tools. USAMRIID's research involving infectious agents is reviewed and approved by the Institutional Biosafety Committee, the Animal Care and Use Committee, the Portfolio Review Committee, and other internal and external reviewers as applicable. No studies can take place without careful examination of all protocols to assess risks.
The laboratories at USAMRIID are inspected and overseen by the Department of the Army, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and many other agencies to ensure their safe and secure operation.
— Safety Report Information —
USAMRIID compiles data from safety incident reports, which are filed whenever a laboratory mishap occurs. This information is updated on the USAMRIID website annually.
In order to properly assess safety performance over time, USAMRIID compares the number of incidents to the number of times employees entered BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories in a given year. It is important to note that in every incident from 2010 to present, no symptoms were reported and there were no signs of illness.
In 2014, USAMRIID had 23,310 entries into BSL-3 laboratories. During that time, there were 28 safety incidents within those laboratories; 3 were characterized as Potential Biological Exposures (PBE). A PBE means that some risk of exposure to infectious agents and/or toxins may have occurred, resulting in medical staff placing the personnel involved on precautionary medical surveillance. No illness or disease occurred. The 2014 incident rate for BSL-3 laboratories was 0.12 percent.
With regard to BSL-4 laboratories, USAMRIID had 8,460 entries during 2014, with a total of 43 incidents and one Potential Biological Exposure (PBE). No symptoms were reported and there were no signs of illness. The 2014 incident rate for BSL-4 laboratories was 0.508 percent.
To view a bar graph of the incidents/total lab entries for 2012 through 2014, click here.
— Data Analysis —
For 2014, the number of suite entries for BSL-3 laboratories was significantly higher than in 2013. The number of suite entries for BSL-4 in 2014 was slightly lower. Overall 2014 incident rates for BSL-3 and BSL-4 increased compared to those from the previous year.
USAMRIID documents each incident that occurs in the laboratories to track trends and make procedural changes where necessary. For example, the 2014 data for BSL-4 reflects a number of positive pressure suit (non-glove) mishaps. USAMRIID uses two different types of positive pressure suits and continually evaluates their use and performance, while working with suit manufacturers to improve their designs.
In 2011, USAMRIID changed internal reporting requirements to better assess performance of personal protective equipment. In BSL-4 laboratories, workers wear positive-pressure suits with heavy gloves attached, and additional gloves underneath. The outer suit gloves can experience small tears and pin holes, which do not pose a risk of exposure as long as the inner glove remains intact. However, to better assess each incident, USAMRIID has been tracking this information since 2011.
Glove types that are identified by laboratory personnel as poorly performing gloves are removed from inventory. As with the suits, the USAMRIID Safety Office continuously monitors glove performance.
To view a chart that breaks down the types of incidents across BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories at USAMRIID from 2012 through 2014,
— Laboratory Oversight —
The following federal agencies and third party inspectors have oversight of USAMRIID laboratories and operations. On average, there is an inspection team in the Institute 90-120 days per year.
- A2LA – American Association for Laboratory Accreditation
- AAALAC – Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International
- ATF – Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
- CAP – College of American Pathologists
- CDC/DSAT – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Select Agents and Toxins
- DEA – Drug Enforcement Agency
- DOJ – Department of Justice
- DOT – Department of Transportation
- EPA – Environmental Protection Agency
- FDA – Food and Drug Administration
- NIH/OBA – National Institutes of Health, Office of Biotechnology Activities
- NRC – Nuclear Regulatory Commission
- OIG – Office of Inspector General
- OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration
- USAMEDCOM – U.S. Army Medical Command
- USDA/APHIS – U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service